十大禁止污片App

積極推進新型基礎設施建設投資
  時間:2021-10-16  點擊量:   
【字體:

基礎(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)是經(jing)濟社會(hui)發展(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要支(zhi)撐。加快(kuai)新(xin)型基礎(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)建(jian)設(she)(she),是促進當前經(jing)濟增長(chang)、打牢長(chang)遠發展(zhan)基礎(chu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要舉(ju)措。今年的(de)(de)(de)(de)《政府工作(zuo)報(bao)告》提(ti)出(chu),要“加強新(xin)型基礎(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)建(jian)設(she)(she)”。在(zai)應(ying)對(dui)疫情影響和推動經(jing)濟恢復增長(chang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)背景下,新(xin)型基礎(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)建(jian)設(she)(she)成為社會(hui)各界(jie)關(guan)注的(de)(de)(de)(de)一個(ge)政策重(zhong)點和熱(re)門話題。對(dui)于新(xin)型基礎(chu)設(she)(she)施(shi)建(jian)設(she)(she)的(de)(de)(de)(de)范圍和作(zuo)用,目前各方面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)認(ren)識(shi)還不一致,有必要深化對(dui)這個(ge)問(wen)題的(de)(de)(de)(de)研究(jiu),為實踐發展(zhan)提(ti)供(gong)必要的(de)(de)(de)(de)理(li)論支(zhi)撐。

新型基礎設施的含義和范圍

前不久,國家(jia)發(fa)(fa)改委(wei)明確(que)新(xin)(xin)型(xing)基礎(chu)(chu)設施(shi)的范圍,提(ti)出新(xin)(xin)型(xing)基礎(chu)(chu)設施(shi)是(shi)以(yi)新(xin)(xin)發(fa)(fa)展理念(nian)為引領(ling),以(yi)技(ji)術創(chuang)新(xin)(xin)為驅動,以(yi)信息網絡為基礎(chu)(chu),面向高質量發(fa)(fa)展需要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao),提(ti)供數字轉型(xing)、智(zhi)能(neng)升級、融合創(chuang)新(xin)(xin)等服務(wu)的基礎(chu)(chu)設施(shi)體(ti)系。這個定(ding)義(yi)比較全面地概括了(le)新(xin)(xin)型(xing)基礎(chu)(chu)設施(shi)的基本要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)素,反映了(le)現階段(duan)的政策理念(nian)和(he)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)求(qiu)。要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)看(kan)到的是(shi),新(xin)(xin)型(xing)基礎(chu)(chu)設施(shi)的重(zhong)點在“新(xin)(xin)型(xing)”,即為哪些方面提(ti)供服務(wu)和(he)由誰(shui)來投資(zi)建(jian)設。

基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi)包括(kuo)公(gong)用(yong)(yong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi)和(he)專(zhuan)(zhuan)用(yong)(yong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi),公(gong)用(yong)(yong)性(xing)質的基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi)如交通、環境(jing)等(deng)(deng)基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi),為(wei)所有產業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)部門(men)的運營提(ti)供支撐(cheng)和(he)服務,一(yi)般以政府投(tou)(tou)(tou)資建設(she)(she)(she)為(wei)主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu);專(zhuan)(zhuan)用(yong)(yong)性(xing)質的基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi)如農(nong)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)、工業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)、能源等(deng)(deng)基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi),為(wei)專(zhuan)(zhuan)門(men)產業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)部門(men)的運營提(ti)供支撐(cheng)和(he)服務,一(yi)般由政府與(yu)(yu)企(qi)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)根據(ju)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi)應(ying)用(yong)(yong)范圍(wei)分別投(tou)(tou)(tou)資建設(she)(she)(she)。新(xin)型基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi)包括(kuo)公(gong)用(yong)(yong)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi)和(he)專(zhuan)(zhuan)用(yong)(yong)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi),但(dan)總體上(shang)屬于(yu)專(zhuan)(zhuan)用(yong)(yong)性(xing)質為(wei)主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)的基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi),它(ta)與(yu)(yu)傳統基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi)的一(yi)個區別,就是主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)要為(wei)高新(xin)技術產業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)及應(ying)用(yong)(yong)提(ti)供支撐(cheng)和(he)服務,并(bing)以市場(chang)(chang)化(hua)投(tou)(tou)(tou)資建設(she)(she)(she)為(wei)主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu),由政府與(yu)(yu)企(qi)業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)根據(ju)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi)應(ying)用(yong)(yong)特點(dian)分別投(tou)(tou)(tou)資建設(she)(she)(she)。因此從理(li)論上(shang)說,新(xin)型基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)施(shi)(shi)(shi)的完整(zheng)含義(yi),應(ying)包括(kuo)“為(wei)高新(xin)技術產業(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)及應(ying)用(yong)(yong)服務”和(he)“以市場(chang)(chang)化(hua)投(tou)(tou)(tou)資建設(she)(she)(she)為(wei)主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)”兩個要素。明(ming)確這些(xie)含義(yi),有利于(yu)確定政策取向和(he)引導(dao)投(tou)(tou)(tou)資行為(wei),更好發揮社會投(tou)(tou)(tou)資的作用(yong)(yong)。

在界定概念的(de)基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)上,我們還要(yao)進一步(bu)確定新(xin)型基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)施的(de)范圍。目前(qian)新(xin)型基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)施主(zhu)要(yao)包括(kuo)3個方(fang)面內(nei)容:一是(shi)信息(xi)基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)施。主(zhu)要(yao)是(shi)指基(ji)(ji)(ji)于新(xin)一代(dai)(dai)信息(xi)技術演化(hua)生成的(de)基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)施,比如(ru),以5G、物(wu)聯網、工業互聯網等(deng)為代(dai)(dai)表的(de)通信網絡基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)施,以人(ren)工智(zhi)(zhi)能(neng)、云計算(suan)、區塊(kuai)鏈等(deng)為代(dai)(dai)表的(de)新(xin)技術基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)施,以數(shu)據中(zhong)心(xin)、智(zhi)(zhi)能(neng)計算(suan)中(zhong)心(xin)等(deng)為代(dai)(dai)表的(de)算(suan)力基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)施等(deng)。二是(shi)融(rong)合基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)施。主(zhu)要(yao)是(shi)指深度應用互聯網、大(da)(da)數(shu)據、人(ren)工智(zhi)(zhi)能(neng)等(deng)技術,支撐傳(chuan)統(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)施轉型升級,進而形(xing)成的(de)融(rong)合基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)施,如(ru)智(zhi)(zhi)能(neng)交(jiao)通基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)施等(deng)。三(san)是(shi)創(chuang)新(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)施。主(zhu)要(yao)是(shi)指支撐科學(xue)研究、技術開發、產品(pin)研制的(de)具有公益屬(shu)性的(de)基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)施,比如(ru),重大(da)(da)科技基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)施、科教基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)施、產業技術創(chuang)新(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)施等(deng)。這是(shi)一種廣義的(de)范圍,有利于我們更好地理解和(he)把握新(xin)型基(ji)(ji)(ji)礎(chu)(chu)(chu)設(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)施建設(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)的(de)方(fang)向。

關鍵要協調處理好三個關系

總的(de)來(lai)(lai)看,推(tui)(tui)進(jin)新(xin)基建投(tou)資(zi)適(shi)應(ying)了我國(guo)當前的(de)經(jing)濟形勢,反映了推(tui)(tui)動(dong)產(chan)業結構(gou)升級和(he)(he)經(jing)濟高(gao)質(zhi)量發展的(de)根本需求,既有利于(yu)提升產(chan)業鏈(lian)水平和(he)(he)保(bao)障供應(ying)鏈(lian)安(an)全,也有利于(yu)把穩增長(chang)與(yu)高(gao)質(zhi)量發展結合起來(lai)(lai)。推(tui)(tui)進(jin)新(xin)基建投(tou)資(zi)既要加(jia)強頂層設計,在深(shen)化研究的(de)基礎上制(zhi)定出(chu)臺有關指導意見和(he)(he)發展規(gui)(gui)劃,引導各(ge)地區制(zhi)定確實可行(xing)的(de)投(tou)資(zi)規(gui)(gui)劃,從(cong)各(ge)地實際出(chu)發突出(chu)投(tou)資(zi)重(zhong)點;又要加(jia)強統(tong)籌協調,在充分(fen)發揮各(ge)方(fang)面(mian)積極性(xing)和(he)(he)創造性(xing)的(de)條件下,推(tui)(tui)動(dong)處(chu)理好(hao)以下幾個(ge)方(fang)面(mian)的(de)關系。

第(di)一,注(zhu)重協調好(hao)政(zheng)府投資和民間(jian)投資的關系。

新基(ji)建(jian)(jian)與(yu)傳統基(ji)建(jian)(jian)的(de)一個(ge)重(zhong)要區別是(shi)(shi)(shi),新基(ji)建(jian)(jian)主要依靠市場化(hua)投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi),政(zheng)府不(bu)是(shi)(shi)(shi)主要的(de)投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)主體。政(zheng)府擴大對新基(ji)建(jian)(jian)的(de)投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)主要是(shi)(shi)(shi)為了解決其中的(de)公共投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)問題,特別是(shi)(shi)(shi)擴大科技研發(fa)創新所需的(de)公用基(ji)建(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi),同時起到逆周期調節市場需求、對社(she)會投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)起導(dao)向作用的(de)效果。而對于高新技術產(chan)業(ye)的(de)專用基(ji)建(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)、應用高新技術改(gai)造傳統基(ji)建(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi),政(zheng)府投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)主要是(shi)(shi)(shi)發(fa)揮“四兩撥千斤”的(de)作用,重(zhong)點(dian)是(shi)(shi)(shi)拉動和(he)引導(dao)民間資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)本(ben)的(de)投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)。

從(cong)當前情況和(he)發(fa)展趨勢看,應(ying)當加強(qiang)對地(di)方(fang)(fang)政(zheng)府新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)投(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)的(de)(de)必要(yao)導(dao)向,防(fang)止一(yi)些地(di)方(fang)(fang)政(zheng)府對新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)投(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)采取(qu)包攬(lan)一(yi)切重大(da)項目(mu)、全面(mian)(mian)安排投(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)計劃(hua)的(de)(de)做(zuo)法。要(yao)引(yin)導(dao)各(ge)(ge)地(di)從(cong)實(shi)際需(xu)求(qiu)和(he)財(cai)力(li)出發(fa),確定不同(tong)的(de)(de)新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)投(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)發(fa)展重點,避免同(tong)類新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)投(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)一(yi)擁而上、各(ge)(ge)地(di)投(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)項目(mu)過度趨同(tong)的(de)(de)問(wen)題(ti),避免短(duan)期內引(yin)起某(mou)些方(fang)(fang)面(mian)(mian)投(tou)(tou)(tou)入和(he)需(xu)求(qiu)過大(da)導(dao)致供給結構性(xing)(xing)短(duan)缺、長(chang)期看又引(yin)起結構性(xing)(xing)過剩(sheng)的(de)(de)問(wen)題(ti)。相關宏(hong)觀(guan)管理(li)部(bu)門應(ying)注意進行政(zheng)策引(yin)導(dao)和(he)協調,及時發(fa)布各(ge)(ge)地(di)新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)投(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)信息(xi),引(yin)導(dao)各(ge)(ge)地(di)研究制定合理(li)的(de)(de)投(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)規(gui)劃(hua),并通(tong)過規(gui)劃(hua)引(yin)導(dao)社會資(zi)(zi)(zi)本(ben)擴大(da)新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)投(tou)(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)。

第二,注重推動新(xin)基建投資與傳統(tong)基建投資協(xie)調發展。

根(gen)據國(guo)家(jia)發(fa)(fa)改(gai)(gai)(gai)(gai)委確(que)(que)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)范圍,應(ying)(ying)用(yong)高新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)技術改(gai)(gai)(gai)(gai)造(zao)傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)礎設(she)施(shi)屬(shu)于新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)內(nei)容(rong),這(zhe)部(bu)分的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)規模是(shi)(shi)比(bi)(bi)較(jiao)大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),因而(er)廣(guang)義(yi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)在整個固定(ding)(ding)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)產投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)中有(you)(you)(you)較(jiao)大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)比(bi)(bi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)和(he)(he)拉動(dong)力。現(xian)在要(yao)(yao)討論的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)廣(guang)義(yi)新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)與(yu)(yu)一(yi)般傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)關(guan)系(xi)問題(ti)。一(yi)般傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)就(jiu)是(shi)(shi)除了(le)應(ying)(ying)用(yong)高新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)技術改(gai)(gai)(gai)(gai)造(zao)傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)礎設(she)施(shi)之外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)內(nei)容(rong),主(zhu)(zhu)要(yao)(yao)是(shi)(shi)“鐵公(gong)(gong)機”等基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)。需要(yao)(yao)注(zhu)意的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)(zhu)要(yao)(yao)問題(ti)是(shi)(shi):首先,不能(neng)(neng)(neng)以新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)否定(ding)(ding)傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)。兩(liang)者(zhe)有(you)(you)(you)不同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)作(zuo)用(yong)、取(qu)向和(he)(he)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)點(dian),都是(shi)(shi)應(ying)(ying)對疫(yi)情影響和(he)(he)經濟(ji)社(she)會發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)所(suo)(suo)需要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)。傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)量大面廣(guang),對投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)和(he)(he)經濟(ji)增(zeng)長仍有(you)(you)(you)較(jiao)大拉動(dong)力,對保就(jiu)業、保民生的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)作(zuo)用(yong)可(ke)(ke)能(neng)(neng)(neng)更(geng)加(jia)直接,但(dan)(dan)主(zhu)(zhu)要(yao)(yao)受制于政府公(gong)(gong)共(gong)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)能(neng)(neng)(neng)力和(he)(he)地方政府債務風險(xian);而(er)新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)有(you)(you)(you)可(ke)(ke)能(neng)(neng)(neng)快速擴(kuo)大,發(fa)(fa)揮出前(qian)所(suo)(suo)未有(you)(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)拉動(dong)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)、推動(dong)經濟(ji)高質量發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)作(zuo)用(yong),但(dan)(dan)增(zeng)長前(qian)景還(huan)取(qu)決于市(shi)場化(hua)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)響應(ying)(ying)程(cheng)度(du)(du)。其次,新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)與(yu)(yu)傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)是(shi)(shi)相互促(cu)進(jin)(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)。傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)為新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)提供必要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)外(wai)部(bu)條件,解決公(gong)(gong)用(yong)設(she)施(shi)和(he)(he)環境(jing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)支撐問題(ti),整個新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)一(yi)定(ding)(ding)程(cheng)度(du)(du)上要(yao)(yao)以傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)為基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)礎;新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)可(ke)(ke)以為傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)拓展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)更(geng)大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)空間(jian),帶動(dong)傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)改(gai)(gai)(gai)(gai)造(zao)升(sheng)級,特別(bie)是(shi)(shi)通過應(ying)(ying)用(yong)高新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)技術改(gai)(gai)(gai)(gai)造(zao)傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)礎設(she)施(shi),增(zeng)強(qiang)傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)動(dong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)和(he)(he)新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)前(qian)景,提升(sheng)傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)效率和(he)(he)可(ke)(ke)持續性。再次,要(yao)(yao)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)籌協調新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)與(yu)(yu)傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)關(guan)系(xi)。從短期看(kan),傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)可(ke)(ke)能(neng)(neng)(neng)仍會占較(jiao)大比(bi)(bi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),中央部(bu)門所(suo)(suo)確(que)(que)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)大投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)項(xiang)目多數仍屬(shu)于傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)內(nei)容(rong),中央與(yu)(yu)地方的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)比(bi)(bi)例劃(hua)分也會帶動(dong)地方政府對傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)穩定(ding)(ding)投(tou)(tou)入。但(dan)(dan)同(tong)時也要(yao)(yao)注(zhu)意新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)出現(xian)“雷聲大雨點(dian)小”的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)情形(xing),以市(shi)場化(hua)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)為主(zhu)(zhu)體的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)能(neng)(neng)(neng)否快速擴(kuo)大,不僅取(qu)決于各級政府的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)視程(cheng)度(du)(du)和(he)(he)推動(dong)力度(du)(du),更(geng)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)能(neng)(neng)(neng)否有(you)(you)(you)效拉動(dong)民間(jian)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)。從這(zhe)個角(jiao)度(du)(du)看(kan),促(cu)進(jin)(jin)新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)與(yu)(yu)傳(chuan)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)協調發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan),使(shi)新(xin)(xin)(xin)(xin)基(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)建(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)投(tou)(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)真正擔綱多重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)發(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)使(shi)命,關(guan)鍵(jian)要(yao)(yao)鼓勵支持和(he)(he)引導民間(jian)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)本(ben)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)進(jin)(jin)入,這(zhe)需要(yao)(yao)研究采取(qu)切實(shi)有(you)(you)(you)效的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)政策(ce)措施(shi),特別(bie)是(shi)(shi)要(yao)(yao)把工作(zuo)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)點(dian)放到深(shen)化(hua)改(gai)(gai)(gai)(gai)革開放上。

第三(san),注(zhu)重處理好政府政策(ce)引導與(yu)市場配置資源(yuan)的(de)關系(xi)。

新(xin)(xin)基建(jian)投(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)與傳統基建(jian)投(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)的(de)一(yi)個重要(yao)(yao)差別,就(jiu)是新(xin)(xin)基建(jian)投(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)的(de)投(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)前(qian)景和收益(yi)回報(bao)具(ju)有更大不穩定性(xing)。推進新(xin)(xin)基建(jian)投(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)主要(yao)(yao)依靠市場化(hua)投(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi),需要(yao)(yao)建(jian)立一(yi)種政(zheng)府(fu)部門搭臺、市場主體唱戲的(de)機(ji)制。政(zheng)府(fu)要(yao)(yao)推動和引導新(xin)(xin)基建(jian)投(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi),就(jiu)要(yao)(yao)改變行政(zheng)性(xing)、計劃性(xing)的(de)管(guan)理方式,轉而實施市場化(hua)的(de)管(guan)理方式。要(yao)(yao)繼續深(shen)化(hua)“放管(guan)服”改革,推行負面(mian)清(qing)單的(de)監管(guan)制度,使(shi)市場在資(zi)(zi)(zi)源(yuan)配置(zhi)中起決(jue)(jue)定性(xing)作(zuo)用,使(shi)投(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)者更大程度地依據市場信息(xi)決(jue)(jue)策并承(cheng)擔投(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)風險。

政府在政策(ce)引導方面主要是做好以下幾件(jian)事情:一(yi)是研(yan)究(jiu)制(zhi)(zhi)定(ding)新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)(jian)投(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)規(gui)劃(hua)。比(bi)如,中(zhong)央有關(guan)部門要研(yan)究(jiu)制(zhi)(zhi)定(ding)全國性(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)(jian)投(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)發(fa)(fa)展規(gui)劃(hua),省級政府部門也要研(yan)究(jiu)制(zhi)(zhi)定(ding)符合本地(di)情況的(de)(de)(de)(de)新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)(jian)投(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)發(fa)(fa)展規(gui)劃(hua)。投(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)規(gui)劃(hua)宜(yi)粗不宜(yi)細,主要起到(dao)發(fa)(fa)布信息(xi)、引導投(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)作用(yong)(yong)。二是深(shen)化(hua)相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)關(guan)投(tou)融資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)體(ti)制(zhi)(zhi)改(gai)(gai)革(ge)(ge)。要更(geng)多(duo)地(di)依靠(kao)改(gai)(gai)革(ge)(ge)的(de)(de)(de)(de)辦法,運用(yong)(yong)市場化(hua)、法治化(hua)的(de)(de)(de)(de)手段(duan),破(po)解新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)(jian)投(tou)融資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)面臨的(de)(de)(de)(de)體(ti)制(zhi)(zhi)機(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)問(wen)題。特別(bie)是要堅(jian)持深(shen)化(hua)供給(gei)側結構(gou)性(xing)改(gai)(gai)革(ge)(ge),堅(jian)持問(wen)題導向,支(zhi)持幫助民(min)營(ying)(ying)企業(ye)解決進(jin)入新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)(jian)領域(yu)面臨的(de)(de)(de)(de)投(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)、融資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)、技術(shu)、人(ren)才等具體(ti)難(nan)題。三(san)是進(jin)一(yi)步優(you)(you)化(hua)各種政策(ce)環(huan)(huan)境(jing)。比(bi)如,完善(shan)與新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)(jian)投(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)關(guan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)安排,補齊制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)性(xing)或(huo)機(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)性(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)短板;改(gai)(gai)善(shan)與新(xin)基(ji)建(jian)(jian)投(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)關(guan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)營(ying)(ying)商環(huan)(huan)境(jing),落(luo)實相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)關(guan)財稅、融資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)等優(you)(you)惠(hui)政策(ce),發(fa)(fa)揮(hui)好各類(lei)中(zhong)介服務機(ji)構(gou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)作用(yong)(yong)。總之,要努力(li)創(chuang)造(zao)一(yi)個(ge)更(geng)加改(gai)(gai)革(ge)(ge)開(kai)放(fang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)環(huan)(huan)境(jing),創(chuang)造(zao)一(yi)個(ge)更(geng)加寬松穩定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)政策(ce)環(huan)(huan)境(jing),創(chuang)造(zao)一(yi)個(ge)更(geng)加便利(li)和優(you)(you)惠(hui)的(de)(de)(de)(de)營(ying)(ying)商環(huan)(huan)境(jing),創(chuang)造(zao)一(yi)個(ge)更(geng)加容(rong)錯和激勵(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)創(chuang)新(xin)環(huan)(huan)境(jing),從(cong)而更(geng)好推(tui)動(dong)新(xin)型(xing)基(ji)礎設(she)施建(jian)(jian)設(she)投(tou)資(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi),為經濟發(fa)(fa)展注入強勁動(dong)力(li)。(郭克(ke)莎)